HTML – HISTORY OF HYPERTEXT TAGGING LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Most modern Internet technologies are based on the long-used, most debated HTML language. It was designed to perform markup and execution of documents posted on web pages. The language began to acquire its first features in 1986. The impetus was the adoption by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) of ISO-8879-standard – Standard Generalized Markup Language or, in abbreviated form – SGML. Attached to it is a description stating that SGML is intended for structural markup of text. It is noteworthy that the description of the appearance of the document was not supposed.
Based on this, we can conclude that SGML was not a system for marking up text and did not have any list of structural elements of the language used in certain conditions. The language implied a description of the syntax for writing the main elements of the markup. After some time, they received the name well-known today – “tags”.
Quite obvious was the need to create a language that:
Describes which element in which cases it is reasonable to apply
Contained a list of elements with which you can create a document that can be read by different programs
Despite the fact that SGML, like its similar applications, did not receive much development, it was not completely forgotten. In 1991, the European Institute for Particle Physics announced the need to develop a mechanism to transmit hypertext information through the global network. That SGML formed the basis of the future language – Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML).
Stages of formation
About forty tags contained HTML version 1.2. There was no description of the physical presentation of documents either. Like its progenitor SGML, it was primarily oriented towards the logical and structural markup of text. However, a certain hint at how the page will be physically presented, nevertheless did a number of tags.
The development of HTML version 2.0 was undertaken by the W3C consortium. The first result was obtained after a year of intense work – in 1995. Almost simultaneously, the capabilities of version 3.0 were discussed. If the second version cannot be called significantly different from the first, then the third was an unconditional breakthrough.
HTML 3.0 included interesting new features:
Marking up mathematical formulas
Tags for creating pages
Insert text-wrapped drawings
However, this was not enough, the need for visual design of hypertext pages became more and more urgent. Then, W3C began to create an independent system, while not contradicting the basics of HTML, but allowing to describe the visual design of documents. The result was the emergence of CSS – Cascading Style Sheets, hierarchical style specifications endowed with unique syntax, structure, tasks.
But, let’s not get ahead of ourselves, and back to HTML. A significant expansion of tags occurred with the filing of Netscape Communications, the corporation that launched the first commercial browser, Netscape Navigator. Innovations pursued only one goal – to improve the appearance of the document, but at the same time they completely contradicted the original principles of the language.
HTML version 3.2 was created as soon as possible. It was targeted at Microsoft Internet Explorer. Until recently, this version of HTML was the only language standard in the development of Internet projects. Nevertheless, the direction is developing very actively, with the help of HTML it was possible to give some sort of ordering to the markup elements of all browsers, but the capabilities of the language became insufficient.
In 2004, they adopted a new version of HTML – 4.01. It provides excellent cross-browser and cross-platform performance.
Why is CSS increasingly used today? Because HTML, in spite of its significantly expanded opportunities since the moment of creation, remains the language of logical markup of hypertext, i.e. not associated with the design of the document. Modern Internet standards imply creating vivid and memorable pages, so webmasters are increasingly using CSS. Can I put an end to the history of HTML? The answer to this question will be rather positive, but the language will not completely disappear, because it underlies many other systems.